SS Healthfoods / Protein Powders
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Bodybuilders often supplement their diets with a powdered form of protein. The powder is mixed with water, milk or juice to make a protein shake. Protein powder is generally consumed immediately before and after exercising, or in place of a meal (meal replacement). Some types of protein are to be taken directly before and after a workout (whey protein), while others are to be taken before going to bed (casein protein – sustained release protein).The theory behind this supplementation is that bodybuilders, by virtue of their unique training methods and end-goals, require higher-than-average quantities of protein to support maximal muscle growth and muscle building.
Protein supplements come in various forms: ready to drink shakes, protein bars, bites, oats, gels and powders. Protein powders are available in a variety of flavours.
- Whey protein contains high levels of all the essential amino acids and branched-chain amino acids. It also has the highest content of the amino acid cysteine, which aids in the biosynthesis of glutathione. For bodybuilders whey protein provides amino acids used to aid in muscle recovery. Whey protein is derived from the process of making cheese from milk. There are three types of whey protein: whey concentrate, whey isolate, and whey hydrolysate. Whey concentrate is 29%–89% protein by weight where whey isolate is 90%+ protein by weight. Whey hydrolysate is enzymatically predigestedand therefore has the shortest rate of digestion of all protein types.
- Casein protein (or milk protein) has glutamine, and casomorphin.
- Soy protein from soybeans contain isoflavones, a type of phytoestrogen.
- Egg-white protein is a lactose- and dairy-free protein.
- Hemp seed contains complete and highly-digestible protein and hemp oil is high in essential fatty acids.
- Rice protein, when made from the whole grain, is a complete protein source that is highly digestible and allergen free. Since rice protein is low in the amino acid lysine, it is often combined with pea protein powder to achieve a superior amino acid profile.
- Pea protein is a hypoallergenic protein with a lighter texture than most other protein powders. Pea protein has an amino acid profile similar to that of soy, but pea protein does not elicit concerns about unknown effects of phytoestrogens. Pea protein is also less allergenic than soy.
Shaker Bottle commonly used to mix supplements. Has mesh inside to avoid lumps in the mixture.
Although it is generally undisputed that athletes and bodybuilders need an increased intake of protein, the exact amount is highly individualized and dependent on the type and duration of the exercise as well as the physiological make-up of the individual. Age, gender, and body size may vary this protein intake.There is some evidence to support the idea that protein shakes are superior to whole foods with regards to enhancing muscle hypertrophy in the one hour window following intensive exercise. Moreover, for athletes who do not have the time to prepare whole food meals on the run or immediately after exercise, a protein shake may be preferred for practical as well as performancereasons. Additionally, some studies suggest low-calorie dieters, vegetarians, haphazard eaters and those who train very heavily may benefit significantly from protein supplements. Many bodybuildersreport consuming hundreds of grams of protein per day to achieve maximal strength gains. Taking an overdose of protein can lead to a loss of appetite, which may be useful for some dieters. Research by Tarnopolsky showed that for bodybuildingindividuals, 0.90g of protein per kg of body weight per day is recommended, whereas endurance athletes require 1.34g/kg/d of protein. Studies suggest that there are different protein requirements for anaerobic and aerobic exercise. Endurance athletes in aerobic activity may have increased daily protein intake at 1.2-1.4 g per kg body weight per day where strength training athletes performing anaerobic activity may have increased daily protein intake needs at 1.4-1.8 g per kg body weight so as to enhance muscle protein synthesis or to make up for the loss of amino acid oxidation during exercise.
Protein supplements come also as meal replacement products. Meal replacement products (MRPs) are either pre-packaged powdered drink mixes or edible bars designed to replace prepared meals. MRPs are generally high in protein, low in fat, have a low to moderate amount of carbohydrates, and contain a wide array of vitamins and minerals.
The majority of MRPs use whey protein, casein (often listed as calcium caseinate or micellar casein), soy protein, and/or egg albumin as protein sources. Carbohydrates are typically derived from maltodextrin, oat fiber, brown rice, and/or wheat flour. Some MRPs also contain flax oil powder as a source of essential fatty acids.
MRPs can also contain other ingredients, such as creatine monohydrate, glutamine peptides, L-glutamine, calcium alpha-ketoglutarate, additional amino acids, lactoferrin, conjugated linoleic acid, and medium chain triglycerides.
A sub-class of MRPs are called 'weight gainers' these have a high ratio of carbohydrates:protein. Where a MRP would have a 0.25-2:1 ratio of Carbohydrates:Protein a weight gainer would have in the order of between 3-5:1 ratios.